The presence of pro–inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF–α), interleukin–1 alpha (IL–1 α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL–1 β) cytokines in the male reproductive tract (testis, epididymis and sperm) may have certain physiological functions. However, when the levels of these cytokines are higher than normal they harm the sperm production. Inflammation is associated with oxidative stress that impairs sperm function. Studies have shown that more infertile men suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract, which often occurs without any symptoms causing sperm death due to DNA damage.
At least 20-50% of male infertility is caused by ejaculatory duct obstruction that leads to inflammation in the male reproductive tract. Other leading causes,
Epididymitis, Infections (sexually transmitted diseases e.g. gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, Escherichia coli), Urethritis, Testicular torsion, Varicocele and several others including male urogenital obstruction, chronic prostatitis, inflammation of one or both testes (orchitis), and drug therapy.
Assisted reproductive Technologies includes in vitro fertilization (IVF), and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), that are used to treat infertility may not be successful when semen samples contain a high DNA damage. Administration of antioxidants to infertile men has been reported to reduce oxidative stress in their sperm cells, improving motility in asthenospermic patients. Studies have associated with a high rate of miscarriage after ICSI, which possibly reflects the fact that compromised spermatozoa are sometimes used and they lead to irreparable DNA damage in the embryo. The degree of inflammations in other genital tract may also affect success rate.
All possible interventions are to reduce the effect of inflammation on male reproduction such as seminal oxidative stress, sperm DNA damage and apoptosis. The reduction of inflammation in the circulation generally increases the success rate of assisted reproductive technology.
The cytokine panel as a group of inflammatory mediators, 12 cytokines and chemokines are measured from one blood sample. There is a strong body of literature as scientific evidences to suggest that the inflammation process and its early link for early treatment of infertility.The good thing is that we have a group of proteins that are working and lined together that can be measured through a simple methodology to reveal the whole picture.
Ask your doctor about the Biomarker testing. The biomarker's testing as preventive medicine: a new approach to stay healthy. Biomarkers are useful for:
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