RVO or Retinal Vein Occlusion is a prevalent retinal vascular disease, second only to diabetic retinopathy. RVO's primarily include central retinal vein occlusions (CRVOs) and branch retinal vein occlusions (BRVOs). In recent studies, the prevalence of RVO is estimated to be 5.2 per 1,000 patients. Although CRVO accounts for only approximately 20% of RVOs, it leads to poorer visual acuity prognoses and quality of life when compared to patients with BRVO. There are several risk factors for CRVO, including patients over 65 years old, hypertension, smoking, atherosclerosis and diabetes.
Macular edema, a severe vision-threatening complication of CRVO contributes greatly to a decreased quality of life. Although pan retinal laser coagulation is recommended for the treatment of neovascularization, the Central Vein Occlusion Study Group has not offered a unified understanding of macular edema. From a pathogenic perspective, decreased tissue perfusion and increased hydrostatic pressure within the involved segments may, as a consequence of the vascular obstruction, lead to intraretinal hemorrhages, exudation of fluid, varying levels of tissue schema and eventual intraocular neovascularization if the retinal schema is pronounced.
Previous studies have demonstrated that angiogenic cytokines such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and many inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17 AND IL-23, are elevated in the ocular fluid of eyes affected by BRVO or CRVO when compared with control eyes. Elevated expressions in the inflammatory cytokines (such as VEGF) and many inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6) has been reported in the ocular fluid of patients with CRVO. However, little is known about the precise roles of these molecules in the pathogenesis of macular edema secondary to BRVO and CRVO.
The cytokine panel as a group of inflammatory mediators, 12 cytokines and chemokines are measured from one blood sample. There is a strong body of literature as scientific evidences to suggest that the inflammation process and its early link for the prediction and intervention of retina disorders as a good example for chronic disease managements. The good thing is that we have a group of proteins working and lined together which can be measured through a simple methodology to reveal the whole picture.
RAFIK R, ANDREW RR, MARK RR , ALAA I (2021) IL-6 as a surrogate biomarker:The IL-6 clinical value for the diagnosis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes SUNKRIST ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM RESEARCH JOURNAL. VOLUME 2 (1): 2021
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